Parts of speech

Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in a sentence. The parts of speech are eight in number:

  1. Noun.
  2. Adjective.
  3. Pronoun.
  4. Verb.
  5. Adverb.
  6. Preposition.
  7. Conjunction.
  8. Interjection.


 A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing; as, Akbar was a great King.
Kolkata is on the Hooghly.
The rose smells sweet.
The sun shines bright.
His courage won him honour.
Note: The word thing includes (i) all objects that we can see, hear, taste, touch, or smell;and (ii) something that we can think of, but cannot perceive by the senses.


 An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun; as,
He is a brave boy.
There are twenty boys in this class.


 A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; as,
John is absent, because he is ill.
The book are where you left them

4. A Verb

A verb is a word used lo express an action or state; as
The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
Kolkata is a big city.
Iron and copper are useful metals.

5. An Adverb

An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as,
He worked the sum quickly.
This flower is very beautiful.
She pronounced the word quite correctly.

6. A Preposition

A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else; as,
There is a cow in the garden.
The girl is fond of music.
A fair little girl sat under a tree.

7. A Conjunction

A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences; as,
Rama and Hari are cousins.
Two and two make four.
I ran fast, but missed the train.

8. An Interjection

An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feel ing; as,
Hurrah! We have won the game. Alas! She is dead.

Some modern grammars include determiners among the parts of speech. Determiners are words like a, an, the, this, that, these, those, every, each, some, any, my, his, one, two, etc., which determine or limit the meaning of the nouns that follow. In this book, as in many traditional grammars, all determiners except a, an and the are classed among adjectives.

As words are divided into different classes according to the work they do in sentences, it is clear that we cannot say to which part of speech a word belongs unless we see it used in a sentence.
They arrived soon after. (Adverb)
They arrived after us. (Preposition)
They arrived after we had left. (Conjunction)
From the above examples we see that the same word can be used as different parts of speech.


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